Laparoscopic surgery is an effective technique for operations which has been developed since many decades and it is difficult to determine who developed this procedure. Laparoscopic surgery, also called minimally invasive surgery (MIS) or ‘keyhole’ surgery, is a latest surgical technique to perform operations in the abdomen through cannulae (also known as ports) which are channels into the body through small incisions. Through video camera, the surgeon can clearly see the operative field without invasive surgery. The abdomen is usually insufflate with carbon dioxide gas. By filling the abdomen, the abdominal wall is raised above the internal organs to create a working and viewing space for the surgeons.
Historically, in 1902, Georg Kelling from Dresden in Germany did laparoscopic surgery using dogs and in 1910, Hans Christian Jacobaeus from Sweden used the approach to operate on a human.
Over the decades, the procedure was advanced and promoted by numerous medical experts. The innovation of the computer chip television camera was revolutionary step in the development of laparoscopy, as the procedure could then be conducted while seeing a projected image of the abdominal areas. Besides viewing clearly the internal structures, this technique also allowed free movement of the surgeon’s hands, making it easier to perform complicated surgery.
In the beginning of 1950s, a publication on diagnostic laparoscopy was released by Raoul Palmer. In 1972, Henry Clarke patented, published and recorded a laparoscopic procedure using instruments from the Ven Instrument Company in Buffalo, New York. This was followed by J.C Tarasconi from the University of Passo Fundo using laparoscopy to perform organ resection for the first time, which was reported at the Third AAGL Meeting in Atlanta, held in November 1976. His work was later published in The Journal of Reproductive Medicine in 1981, which was the first time that laparoscopic surgical resection had been recorded in medical studies.
In 1981, Kurt Semm from the Kiel University in Germany implemented laparoscopy to remove an appendicitis. Semm established some of the techniques that went on to become standard medical processes such as ovarian cyst enucleation, myomectomy for fibroids and laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy. He also developed a medical instrument company known as Wisap in Munich, Germany where many high quality endoscopic instruments are still produced. In 1982, the first solid state camera was introduced and this was the begining of 'video-laparoscopy'. In 1987, Phillipe Mouret performed the first video-laparoscopic cholecystectomy in Lyons, France.
In 1990, the laparoscopic clip applier was developed that could mechanically advance twenty clips rather than one, thereby eradicating the need to replace each clip for every application. The new clip applier augmented the acceptance of laparoscopy to remove the gall bladder.
During 1994, a robotic arm was designed to hold the laparoscope camera and instruments. In 1996, the first ever live broadcast of laparoscopic surgery through the Internet was done.
Currently, ninety percent of operations are done through laparoscopic technique for cholelithic diseases, and in gynecology. The operative treatment in colorectal, gastric, vascular and thoracic surgery rapidly develops. Every medical institution offers a performance of certain surgical operations in a videoendosurgical method.
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